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Ikhtisar Sahabat menurut Al-Quran (2)

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Oleh KH JALALUDDIN RAKHMAT

Dua Orang Istri Menyakiti Hati Nabi saw
Di antara adab mukmin kepada Rasulullah saw ialah membuatnya rido dan tidak menyakitinya. Tetapi semua Nabi as disakiti bukan saja oleh orang-orang kafir, tetapi juga oleh para sahabatnya yang mengetahui dan mengakui kenabian mereka. Nabi Musa as disakiti kaumnya.

“Dan (ingatlah) ketika Musa berkata kepada kaumnya: "Hai kaumku, mengapa kamu menyakitiku, sedangkan kamu mengetahui bahwa sesungguhnya aku adalah utusan Allah kepadamu?" Maka tatkala mereka berpaling (dari kebenaran), Allah memalingkan hati mereka dan Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada kaum yang fasik.” (AQ 61:5).

Nabi Muhammad saw, seperti Musa as, disakiti kaumnya dengan berbagai fitnah terhadap kesuciannya. Beliau juga seperti Nuh dan Luth, disakiti oleh istrinya yang mengkhianatinya. Allah berfirman (AQ 66:10):

“Allah membuat isteri Nuh dan isteri Luth sebagai perumpamaan bagi orang-orang kafir. Keduanya berada di bawah pengawasan dua orang hamba yang saleh di antara hamba-hamba Kami; lalu kedua isteri itu berkhianat kepada suaminya (masing-masing), maka suaminya itu tiada dapat membantu mereka sedikitpun dari (siksa) Allah; dan dikatakan (kepada keduanya): "Masuklah ke dalam jahannam bersama orang-orang yang masuk (jahannam)."

Menurut Al-Quran dan Terjemahnya “Maksudnya: nabi-nabi sekalipun tidak dapat membela isteri-isterinya atas azab Allah apabila mereka menentang agama.” Kedudukan sebagai isteri Nabi tidak dengan sendirinya menjamin kesucian dan kemuliaan. Alat ukur kemuliaan sama untuk setiap orang, yaitu, “Sesungguhnya yang paling mulia di antara kamu adalah yang paling takwa”.

Maka simaklah kalimat-kalimat Al-Quran berikut ini tentang dua orang istri Nabi saw:
إِن تَتُوبَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا وَإِن تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ مَوْلاَهُ وَجِبْرِيلُ وَصَالِحُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ ظَهِيرٌ

Jika kamu berdua bertaubat kepada Allah, maka sesungguhnya hati kamu berdua telah condong (untuk menerima kebaikan); dan jika kamu berdua bantu-membantu menyusahkan Nabi, maka sesungguhnya Allah adalah Pelindungnya dan (begitu pula) Jibril dan orang-orang mukmin yang baik; dan selain dari itu malaikat-malaikat adalah penolongnya pula.

Para ahli tafsir semuanya sepakat bahwa yang menyusahkan Nabi saw atau menyakiti hati beliau dalam ayat ini adalah dua orang Istri Nabi saw – Aisyah dan Hafshah. Bacalah Al-Quran dan Terjemahnya untuk ayat sebelumnya (AQ 66:3). Dengan tegas disebutkan nama Aisyah dan Hafshah di situ. Marilah kita perhatikanpenjelasan kata demi kata dari ayat di atas menurut Al-Fakhr al-Raazi dalam Tafsirnya, Mafaatih al-Ghayb, al-Tafsiir al-Kabiir:

إِن تَتُوبَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ Jika kamu berdua bertaubat kepada Allah, ditujukan kepada Aisyah dan Hafshah dengan cara iltifaat (menarik perhatian) supaya lebih keras kecaman kepada keduanya dan supaya keduanya bertaubat karena saling membantu dalam menyakiti Rasulullah saw. فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا, maka sesungguhnya hati kamu berdua telah condong dari dan telah menyimpang dari al-Haq, yakni haq Rasulullah saw... وَإِن تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ, dan jika kamu berdua bantu-membantu menyakiti Nabi saw...(Tidak saya kutip semuanya, tapi saya tunjukkan Saudara langsung kepada sumbernya. Klik links berikut: http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=4&tSoraNo=66&tAyahNo=4&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1 )

Para ahli tafsir tidak sepakat tentang kisah asbab al-nuzulnya ayat ini dan ayat sebelumnya: Apakah konspirasi yang dilakukan Aisyah dan Hafshah itu karena Nabi saw minum madu di rumah Zainab atau karena Mariyah Al-Qibthiyah berada di rumah Hafshah. Tetapi mereka sepakat bahwa konspirasi keduanya telah menyakiti hati Nabi saw. Beliau murka dan menjauhi semua istrinya. Bahkan tersebar berita bahwa Rasulullah saw menthalaq mereka. Sekarang kita kutip Tafsir Ibn Katsir. Saya kutipkan terjemahannya dalam bahasa Inggris, supaya saudara dapat mengeceknya langsung online sekarang juga (dengan asumsi saudara bisa memahaminya) pada http://www.tafsir.com/Default.asp .

A Hadith that Imam Ahmad collected in the Musnad mentions that `A'ishah and Hafsah were the plotters. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "I was eager to ask `Umar about the two ladies among the wives of the Prophet , about whom Allah said,
[
إِن تَتُوبَآ إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا]

(If you two turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined;) Then I performed Hajj along with `Umar, and on our way back from Hajj he went aside (to relieve himself). I also went aside along with him carrying a tumbler of water. When he finished and returned, I poured water on his hands from the tumbler and he performed ablution. I said, `O Commander of the faithful! Who were the two ladies among the wives of the Prophet , to whom Allah said,
[
إِن تَتُوبَآ إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا]

(If you two turn in repentance to Allah your hearts are indeed so inclined)' `Umar said, `I am astonished at your question, O Ibn `Abbas.''' - Az-Zuhri (a subnarrator) said that `Umar did not like the question, but he still answered it, saying that they were `A'ishah and Hafsah. "Then `Umar went on relating the story and said, `We, the people of Quraysh, used to have authority over our women. But when we came to live with the Ansar, we noticed that the Ansari women had the upper hand over their men, so our women started acquiring the habits of the Ansari women. At that time, I was residing at the house of Umayyah bin Zayd, in Al-`Awali. Once I got angry with my wife, and she talked back to me; I disliked her answering me back. She said, `Why do you dislike me talking back to you By Allah, the wives of the Prophet talk back to him, and some of them may not speak with him for the whole day, until nightfall.' Then I went to Hafsah and asked her, `Do you talk back to Allah's Messenger' She said, `Yes.' I asked, `Does any of you keep Allah's Messenger angry all day long, until night' She replied, `Yes.' I said, `Whoever among you does this is a ruined, losing person! Doesn't she fear that Allah may get angry for the anger of His Messenger and, thus, she will be ruined Don't ask Allah's Messenger too many things, and don't retort him in any case. Demand from me whatever you like, and don't be tempted to imitate your neighbor, for she is more beautiful than you, and more beloved to Allah's Messenger than you.' He meant `A'ishah.

I, and an Ansari neighbor of mine used to visit the Prophet in turns. He used to go one day, and I another day. When I went I would bring him the news of what had happened that day regarding the revelation and when he went, he used to do the same for me. In those days it was rumored that the Ghassan (tribe) were preparing their horses to invade us. My companion went and returned to us at night and knocked at my door. I came out to him. He said that a grave thing happened. I asked him, `What is it Have Ghassan come' He replied that it was worse and more serious than that, adding that Allah's Messenger had divorced all his wives. I said, `Hafsah is a ruined loser! I expected that would happen some day.' So I dressed myself and I performed the Subh prayer. I went to Hafsah and found her weeping. I asked her, `Has Allah's Messenger divorced all of you' She replied, `I don't know. He is there alone in the upper room.' I went to the upper room and asked a black slave of the Prophet to ask for his permission to see me, and the boy went in and then came out saying, `I mentioned you to him and he remained silent.' I then went out and came to the Minbar and found a group of people around it and some of them were weeping. I sat with them for some time, but could not endure the situation. So, I requested to the boy, `Will you get the permission for `Umar' He went in and then came out saying, `I mentioned you to him, but he did not reply.' So, I went to Minbar and sat with the people who were sitting by the Minbar, but I could not bear the situation, so I went to the boy again and said, `Will you get the permission for `Umar' He went in and brought the same reply as before. When I was leaving, behold, he called me saying, `Allah's Messenger has granted you permission.' So, I entered the Prophet's room, greeted him with the Salam and saw him lying on a mat without bedding on it, and the mat had left its mark on the body of the Prophet.

I said, `Have you divorced your wives, O Allah's Messenger' He raised his eyes to me and replied no. I said, `Allahu Akbar. O Allah's Messenger! We, the people of Quraysh used to have the upper hand over our women. But when we came to Al-Madinah, we found a people whose women had the upper hand over them. Our women started learning this behavior from them. Once, I got angry with my wife, and she talked back to me. I disliked that behavior from her and she said, `Why do you dislike that I talk back to you By Allah, the Prophet's wives talk back to him and one of them would ignore him the whole day, until the night.' I said to her, `Whoever does this among them is the ruined loser! Does she feel safe from Allah getting angry with her on account of His Messenger's anger In that case, she would be ruined.' On that the Prophet smiled. I then said, `O Allah's Messenger! I went to Hafsah and said to her, `Do not be tempted to imitate your companion (`A'ishah) for she is more beautiful than you and more beloved to the Prophet.' The Prophet smiled again. When I saw him smiling, I said, `Does the Messenger feel calm' He said, `Yes.' So, I sat down and cast a glance at the room, and by Allah, I couldn't see anything of importance, except three hides. I said, `Invoke Allah, O Allah's Messenger, to make your followers prosperous, for the Persians and the Byzantines have been made prosperous and given worldly luxuries, even though they do not worship Allah.' The Prophet sat upright and said,
«
أَفِي شَكَ أَنْتَ يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ أُولَئِكَ قَوْمٌ عُجِّلَتْ لَهُمْ طَيِّبَاتُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا»

(O Ibn Al-Khattab! Do you have any doubt These people have been given rewards of their good deeds in this world only.) I asked the Prophet , `Please beg Allah's forgiveness for me, O Allah's Messenger.' The Prophet swore that he would not go to his wives for one month, because of his severe anger towards them, until Allah the Exalted and Most Honored censured him.'' Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith using various chains of narration. Al-Bukhari and Muslim also collected it from Ibn `Abbas, who said, "For a whole year, I was eager to ask `Umar bin Al-Khattab about an Ayah. However, I hesitated out of respect for him. Once, he went on a Hajj trip and I accompanied him. On our way back, he stopped to relieve himself behind some trees of Arak. I stopped until he finished and then walked along with him and asked him, `O Leader of the believers! Who are the two women who helped each other (or plotted) against the Prophet ''' This is the narration that Al-Bukhari collected, while Muslim recorded that Ibn `Abbas asked, "Who are the two women about whom Allah the Exalted said,
[
وَإِن تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ]
(but if you help one another against him, )'' `Umar replied, "A'ishah and Hafsah.'' Muslim mentioned the rest of the Hadith.

Apakah hukumannya orang yang menyakiti Allah dan RasulNya? Allah swt berfirman:
 

 

Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang menyakiti Allah dan Rasul-Nya Allah akan MELAKNATNYA DI DUNIA DAN DI AKHIRAT, dan menyediakan baginya siksa yang menghinakan. (aL-Ahzab 57)

Tue, 21 Mar 2017 @20:25

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